Affordable Housing

10 minute read

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Melbourne, Australia, is facing rapid population growth and a severe housing affordability crisis. Home purchase is among the least affordable in the world, and there is an acute shortage of low-cost rental housing. The Affordable Housing initiative was created to address these challenges. Challenges that can’t be solved by one discipline alone.


The challenge

In the last two decades, house price growth has driven dramatic increases in wealth inequality in Australia. More affluent households have benefited from increased property values. At the same time lower-income households have seen large increases in their rental and mortgage payments.

For low-income households, decrease in housing affordability can:

  • limit access to jobs and essential services
  • negatively impact on physical and mental health
  • increase the risk of homelessness.

The combined pressures of population growth, demographic change, sustainability imperatives and equity challenges are driving an urgent need to better understand and deliver affordable housing in Australia.

Our research capability

The initiative acknowledges the complexity of housing systems and their role in supporting or inhibiting sustainability, social justice and economic stability. This is why it brings together researchers from numerous disciplines, including:

  • architecture
  • urban planning
  • property economics
  • public health
  • geography
  • economics
  • sociology.

The initiative is also supported by an advisory group of industry experts and includes collaboration with:

  • government
  • not-for-profit
  • community stakeholders.

The initiative is creating new collaborative research into the supply of quality housing: its design, planning, affordability, accessibility and use. In the process it is developing an evidence base for solutions to contemporary housing issues.

And it is building on research already conducted as part of the Transforming Housing project.

Our approach

The initiative aims to make a positive contribution to social inclusion and equity by:

  • addressing changing demographic patterns
  • furthering sustainable approaches to urban development.

The initiative’s mix of evidence and diverse expertise is creating integrated solutions to:

  • problems of housing markets and social inequality
  • the quality and amenity of living environments
  • urban intensification and sustainability
  • the management of growth.

Research outcomes, including positive changes that could be made across the housing system, are shared through:

  • internationally established formats such as housing expos
  • publications, public events, workshops and research forums.

Research themes

Research conducted through the initiative is organised into the following themes.

Markets and policy

This research area examines the market and policy transformations necessary to increase the supply of affordable housing. Research activities include:

  • evaluating planning and policy levers and interventions and their impact on housing market dynamics and affordable housing supply
  • examining innovative ways to create an affordable housing industry, including governance, finance, development, delivery and partnership models
  • investigating social and economic returns on public investment in affordable housing supply.

These themes build on research conducted as part of the Transforming Housing project. One output of this project has been the Affordable Housing Calculator. It is an educational tool designed to model the likely impact of various incentives and affordable housing contributions on residential project feasibility.

A manual for the calculator is available. Contact if you or your organisation are interested in learning more about this tool.

Theme leader: Dr Ilan Wiesel, School of Geography

Design innovation

Through prototyping and modelling, this theme explores innovation in:

  • architectural and site design
  • infrastructure
  • engineering
  • manufacturing
  • building technology.

Research activities include:

  • investigating the design of new models to address place-making and affordable housing problems
  • exploring prefabricated construction as a major source of potential cost reduction, energy efficiency and increased quality
  • testing public and stakeholder reception to innovative housing prototypes.

Theme leader: Professor Alan Pert, Architecture Building and Planning


The health theme explores how affordable housing can improve an individual’s mental and physical health.

Research activities include:

  • identifying and articulating the benefits of affordable housing for health, education, welfare and sustainability
  • improving the quality of evidence on the relationship between housing and health
  • examining how unaffordable housing contributes to socio-economic and health inequalities
  • examining innovations in the supply of affordable housing to promote health and wellbeing.

Theme leader: Associate Professor Rebecca Bentley, Melbourne School of Population and Global Health

Design precedents

This theme explores the history of:

  • relevant precedents in housing typologies and usage
  • patterns in urban and suburban development
  • precedents in planning and policy, evolution of theoretical approaches.

Research activities include:

  • identifying prior design approaches and models in a range of housing types with relevance to changing household patterns, increasing densities, and sustainability
  • examining how cultural and community values are invested in existing housing stock and residential neighbourhoods, and the implications of this for housing innovation
  • understanding the achievements and failures of previous attempts to address major demographic change through urban planning and design.

Theme leader: Professor Paul Walker, Architecture Building and Planning


2019 Seed Funding recipients

Is leaving public housing a reality? An exploration of housing challenges faced by Melbourne’s African migrants and refugees

Until recently, long-term housing conditions for African migrants and refugees have been unexplored. This project is investigating how African migrants arrive, adapt and integrate in Melbourne.

This population faces many challenges including unstable housing. They also experience racism, limited access to employment, and health and education inequalities. These stresses add to existing trauma and create barriers to the resettlement process.

The project is investigating whether these adverse conditions cause homelessness or force families into substandard housing.

The interdisciplinary research team worked is working with marginalised communities to shed light on their experiences and challenges. The team includes experts in:

  • communities and housing
  • built environment
  • refugee resettlement.

Research team: Dr Sandra Carrasco Mansilla. Professor Sun Sheng Han, Dr Majdi Faleh, Neeraj Dangol (Faculty of Architecture, Building and Planning), Dr Ashleigh Haw (Melbourne Social Equity Institute)

Collaborators: Haileluel Gebre-Selassie (Africa Think Tank), Professor Gonzalo Lizarralde, and Faten Kikano (University of Montreal).

Post WWII apartments: analysing medium density housing precedents for contemporary Melbourne

This project is exploring previous efforts to increase housing density in inner and middle suburban Melbourne.

The central question is how can we preserve Melbourne’s distinctive character while providing housing for a booming population?

This project brings together architects, architectural historians and social historians. Together, they’re analysing and photographing post-war medium-density housing, in particular, the classic ‘six-pack’ apartment block.

The output of this work will combine social and historical research and design analysis. It will assess the achievements and failures of attempts to increase density in inner and middle suburbs. Its aim is to influence and inform contemporary design and policy.

Research team: Professor Philip Goad, Professor Paul Walker, Catherine Townsend, Dr Amanda Achmadi (Faculty of Architecture, Building and Planning), and Professor Andrew May (School of Historical and Philosophical Studies, Faculty of Arts)

Collaborators: Dr Tom Alves (RMIT University), Stefan Preuss (Office of the Victorian Government Architect), John Gollings Photography.

Evaluation of the Safe Place Pilot Program

More than a third of the people accessing the Victorian homelessness system in 2015–16 cite intimate partner violence as the cause. So, there is a clear link between women’s homelessness and intimate partner violence. Meanwhile, there’s a shortage of emergency housing in Melbourne.

Safe Steps and its partners are piloting a program that uses vacant homes in Melbourne’s private real estate market to help fill this gap. This provides women with quality, affordable and safe emergency housing.

This project includes researchers in urban planning, housing economics, public health and geography. Working with Safe Steps and their partners, they’re creating a model for socially and economically sustainable emergency housing.

This project was also awarded an additional A$5000 from the Melbourne Disability Institute. The institute recognises that women with disability are a large part of the population group that needs to access safe housing.

Research team: Erika Martino, Associate Professor Rebecca Bentley (Melbourne School of Population and Global Health), Dr Andrew Martel (Faculty of Architecture, Building and Planning), Ilan Wiesel (School of Geography).

Collaborators: Safe Place, Save the Children, Safe Steps.

Modelling the health impact of housing interventions in Australia: an indoor temperature pilot

In the past, it’s been difficult to compare the health impacts of housing interventions as there’s been limited data. So, policy decisions have been made with limited information.

This project has changed that. Soon, policymakers will be able to use a new simulation tool to understand the potential impact of housing interventions on health. Specifically, which measures produce the best health outcomes at the best price. This is also known as a cost-to-health-benefit ratio.

This sort of modelling is being piloted on the indoor temperature of housing. Researchers are assessing the health gains from improving indoor temperature, which has cost-of-living and health implications.

Previously, this sort of modelling has been applied in the context of tobacco control, nutrition and cancer screening.

Areas of expertise in this project include knowledge of simulation modelling, epidemiology, statistics, economics and housing.

Research team: Dr Ankur Singh, Associate Professor Rebecca Bentley, (Centre for Health Equity, Melbourne School of Population and Global Health), Dr Julie Miao (Faculty of Architecture, Building and Planning), Dr Saber Dini, Professor Tony Blakely (Centre for Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Melbourne School of Population and Global Health)

Collaborators: Dr Lyrian Daniel, Professor Emma Baker (University of Adelaide), Dr Anja Mizdrak (University of Otago)

Is Neoliberalism driving a need for new skillsets for urban planners, developers and government stakeholders? A case study of Melbourne

New planning mechanisms were introduced by the Victorian Government in 2018. Their aim was to facilitate the supply of affordable housing. They allow authorities such as local councils to enter into voluntary agreements with landowners to deliver affordable housing as part of new developments.

The success of these voluntary affordable housing agreements will inevitably rely on negotiation. This project will investigate how developers, planners and government can reach a mutually beneficial outcome.

Through a social responsibility lens, the team is drawing on psychological theories to understand stakeholders’ capacity to negotiate.

The project is producing a framework to be developed further into action research to enhance negotiations of voluntary affordable housing agreements in Victoria.

Researchers within the project have expertise in property, urban planning, marketing and geography.

Research team: Dr Georgia Warren-Myers, Dr Katrina Raynor (Faculty of Architecture, Building and Planning), Professor Angela Paladino, Dr Madeline Judge (Marketing, Faculty of Business and Economics)

Collaborators: Dr Matthew Palm, University of Toronto

Research spotlight

The impact of COVID-19 on members of share houses in Victoria

Research from the Affordable Housing Hallmark has revealed the significant impact of COVID-19 on members of share houses in Victoria.

Key findings include:

  • Almost three quarters of survey respondents have lost their job or had their hours reduced
  • 50% report a reduction in their mental health
  • 50% say their financial situation has worsened since the start of COVID-19
  • Young people, visa-holders and people in casual employment have been particularly impacted
  • Access to supportive social networks and JobKeeper and JobSeeker payments are the most important resources supporting Victorians living in share houses.

Read the report

Response to the City of Melbourne’s draft Affordable Housing Strategy

We commend the City of Melbourne on their efforts to provide clarity around affordable housing negotiations and share their view that State-level movement towards mandatory inclusionary zoning is a far more effective affordable housing strategy. Yet local councils should not be complacent.

We call on City of Melbourne (and all councils) to be ambitious in pushing for affordable housing in all medium to large developments.

Read the response

Why staying home during a pandemic can increase risk for some

As coronavirus infections began to rise in Australia, the government ordered people to stay home. “If you can stay at home, you must stay at home” has become the motto for good citizenship, and our primary weapon against a cureless pandemic. But, over less than two months, the experience of staying home exposed the inadequacy of housing for many people. Housing features such as tenure, density and design have become key factors determining people’s ability to:

  • stay home
  • work or study from home
  • isolate from other members of the household if necessary
  • more generally, protect themselves and others from the risk of contracting coronavirus.

Housing inequalities have always compounded and reflected inequalities in health, wellbeing, and productivity. The imperative to stay home during COVID-19 has amplified these effects. Alongside individual characteristics such as poor health, low income, age, and gender, housing related issues are significant factors affecting people's vulnerability and varied experiences of the pandemic.

The way that people are housed matters more than ever. And the consequences for people’s health, mental health and economic security are greater than they have been in most of our lifetimes.

We are looking at the ways housing has cushioned or amplified experiences of vulnerability or resilience during COVID19.

Read the discussion paper

Watch: Affordable Housing Hallmark Seminars 2020

Showcasing a range of perspectives, each seminar focuses on one of our seed-funded research projects, with discussion led by University researchers.

Take a deep dive into topics such as housing for people with disabilities, how housing affects health and the housing challenges faced by Melbourne’s African migrants.

Session one looks at the housing crisis within the family violence sector.

More info and register for future sessions

Session 01 – Expanding crisis accommodation for victim-survivors of family violence


Steering Committee

Professor Alan Pert

Faculty of Architecture Building and Planning
Initiative Chair and Lens Leader, Design Innovation

Academic Convenor

Dr Kate Raynor

Project Coordinator

Holly Jones

News and events


The initiative will continue to fund interdisciplinary research projects in 2020. The funds will be awarded from a pool of A$70 000 and will aim to generate new knowledge, insights, teams, impact and ideas relating to affordable housing.

The Seed Funding Program is designed to encourage cross-faculty collaboration. Funds of up to A$15 000 may be allocated per research project.

Applications for 2020 have closed.

We will contact applicants in mid-June to let them know whether they have been selected to progress to the next stage. If your EOI is selected, you will need to complete a detailed application form and prepare a 5 minute project pitch to be delivered in July. We will also work with you to create a one-page summary of your proposed project, to be shared with industry partners.

If you’re outside of the University and would like to get involved with the initiative or if you have a general enquiry, contact Project Coordinator, Holly Jones at


For more information about the Affordable Housing Hallmark Research Initiative, email Holly Jones at

If you have questions or comments about the Hallmark Research Initiatives program, email